Do you know?

  • Spiders have been to space. A jumping spider was chosen for space travel along with Sunita Williams into the space.
  • The annual prescribed standard of PM 2.5 and PM 10 are 20 µg/m3 and 60 µg/m3 respectively in India and Delhi
  •  Gamma orezonol is an oil extracted from hard outer brown layer of rice used in preparation of ghee, and replaces wax in cosmetics, confectionery and polishing compounds
  • Gluten , a composite storage of proteins is found in Wheat.
  • Maida in Hindi is “ Refined wheat Flour”
  • Most natural diamonds are found at the depth of 110-140 km inside earth.
  • The spacing between two radio frequencies carrying TV transmission is 4.5 MHz
  • India is host to oldest fossil of the world around 1.6 billion years old in Chitrkoot (UP & MP) showing resemblance to red algae.
  • Lost continent found under Mauritia named in the Indian ocean. The land submerged in Indian ocean 200 million years ago when India and Madagascar got separated
  •  Eighth continent found named Zealandia because it is attached to New Zealand as 94 % of continent is submerged. It is 1.84 million square mile continent .
  • Larsen C, Largest iceberg borke from Antarctica. The report was given by MIDAS, UK’s project in Antarctica.



Fooding Love of Lucknow City




Lucknow ,a land of Nawabs and Awadhi cuisine is totally a foodie’s paradise! From Kebabs to Paans to biryanis, you wander around in the city for a day or two and you’ill never know which narrow alley takes you to food heaven. Taste, the small food joints  and air of the city screams magic! Even though the list of delicious food is endless, here are some 11 mouthwatering dishes that you just cannot resist when in Lucknow:

1.     Bun Makkhan and Tea at Sharma Tea stall

A visit to lucknow is incomplete without a visit to Sharma Ji The Bun Makkhan is something to die for ! Freshly baked buns smothered in homemade butter…..need! Say something more? The Samosas are stuffed with a subtly delicious potatos mix which perfectly complements the already perfect cup of tea served right here at Lalbagh, Hazratganj!

2.     Ratti Lal’s Khasta Source (Aminabad)

Breakfast in Lucknow is nothing short of a Nawabi treat and one of the best of breakfast destinations has to be Ratti Lal’s Khasta Kachori. The Barras and Pooris served here are no match to the Khastas. The Chikpea Subzi is equally delicious and for the ones who love chillies there is a red chilli aloo available as well. They truly believe that one should feast like a king at breakfast!

3.     Makkhan Malai (Chowk)

Winters are incomplete without Makkhan Malai. It is conceptually similar to old Delhi’s doulat ki chaat, but much more intense and flavorful. The dish in itself is light and fluffy, but very creamy in texture. The sprinkling of Khoya added on top by the vendors makes it irresistible. This seasonal dish is an integral part of lucknow food.

4.     Raja Thandai (Chowk)

In the beer-vodka age, Raja Thandai plays a major role in keeping thandai a favourite among lucknow wites. Customers like the drink because it is herbal and helps in digestion and not to mention incredibly delicious! Into service since the last 100 years, Raja Thandai is definitely the place to be when in Lucknow!

5.     Sheermal (Dastar Khwan) “Hazratganj”

Sheermal is saffron – flavored flat bread, I well know part of Awadhi cuisine. H’s a medley sweet naan which is absolutely delicious! Sheermal is mixed with milk and can be consumed with any other veg dish.

6.     Jain Chat Wala (Naval Kishore Sushanpura Lalbagh)

This place is the ultimate chat heaven. Loyal customers swear by their Dahi Batasha and Aloo Tikki for a city obsessed with meat, this place is a pleasant diversion. Their quick service is the reason why people keep coming (Film Star) Kangana Ranaut visited here.

7.     Prakash Ki Kulfi source (Aminabad)

Lucknow food will never disappoint the once with a sweet tooth. One of the major competition in deserts is Prakash Ki Kulfi. They Serve only Kulfi Faloodas in their shop and it’s made within the blink of an eye! If attraction had a colour, it would have been yellow!

8.     Lucknowi Chaat (Hazratganj)

If you don’t eat chaat in lucknow your journey will remain incomplete. Dahi Vada, Papdi, Ghughni, Aloo dum, Bhujia and Paani Batasha (in 10 Flovours) are few of the chaat items that one can try, even along the pavements tokri chaat (Basket Chaat) should be high on the list of food  items you wish to eat Lucknow!

One of the best and the most recommended place in chowk for Lucknow Chat is Dixit Chaat House. The other very Popular but much heavier North Indian Meal is that of Chole Bhature, and for this try Shree.


9.     Lucknowi Paan (Zaiqa-E Lucknow) “Azahar Paan”

No Meal is complete if you don’t end it up with Paan and  don’t you dare think of the Lucknowi Paan as just another Paan!

Paan lovers would be in a for a treat because this paan is more than just patta, supari and Gulkand put together. It is an experience in it self and if you have not tasted it, you are missing out on life! Famous personalities who visited this shop are Daler Mehendi, Manoj Bajpai, Raza Murad, Abhishek Bacchan, Saif Ali Khan.


10. Kerala Café (Hazratganj) – “South Indian taste will not go waste”.

 Fooding love of people in Lucknow also includes the taste of South Indian Food as though they delicious light and yummy in taste with rasam to coconut chatni’s and lot more…

11. Chappan Bhog(Sadar Bazaar)

Chappan Bhog is a reputed name in premium quality sweets & Namkeen & Other delectable delicacies perhaps the best that has won the heart of millions… around the globe benefits as one can send a large variety of sweets nationally and internationally through Chappan Bhog makes you easy to access money transfer with quit service facility. The Chaat here is also too Yummy & delicious including Dahi Vada and Alloo Tikki, there dahi vada is the best ever eaten as it is soft succulent dipped in sweet curd simply the Alloo Tikki is also great.

            They have a variety of sweets but motichoor laddoos a loved by many, over all it’s a highly recommended place.

Cafeteria in Lucknow (The Best one can get)

12. Vintage  Machine (Gomti Nagar)

You like hanging out at some vibrant colorful and themed places well vintage machine comes to your rescue, it serves some unshared exclusive appetizers like the black burger and crust pizzas to accompany them they fill you up with coffee prepared from imported Venezuelan coffee beans. As its specialty includes every Saturday here is a musical eve and cannot afford to miss that with mushy melodies of guitar & violin.

Special drinks espresso drinks, snacks and sweets.

13. The Lucknow Local (Latouche Road Charbagh, Lucknow)

Resonating creativity at its best. You’re never going to find any café like this as the café welcomes you with Yamaha Motor Bike hanging at the top of Door.

The food is unique as well mango mint truffle  cake which is sure to engage you for a long time including wood fire pizzas these pizzas made on actual fire wood. Which gives distinct taste to it.

14. Homeys Café (Vivek Khand Gomti Nagar, Lucknow)

One of the best looking cafes of Lucknow for the couples to hangout awaits exploration. Specialty include for the baked nachos to cold coffee from cheesy pasta to crispy pizza as it leaves you wanting more and more well one can try an amazing food experience at nominal rate.

The chocolate heaven (The place of the buddies, Vivek Khand Opp. Aryan)

Witness the chocolaty affair and be muse yourself with pan cakes, waffles milk shakes pizzas, the huge variety of chocolate is sure to grab your mood with mesmerizing mood…



Life Is Like a Sandwich you have to fill It with The Best Ingredients.


Vanshita Sharma




Jawwad Patel of Hyderabad has created a device named " Dewdrop" which refills itself. This 3D printed design apparatus uses moisture from air to create water. He is the 1st person in Asia to make such device. The device produces pure drinking water from thin humid air. This technology is based on Thompson’s effect. The water present in the air is condensed with the help of an on-board computer and sensor.. A fan absorbs humid air and transfers it to the condenser. The water is purified by passing it through several layers which removes impurities. The development costs Rs 12,000 and will be available at cheaper cost when produced in bulk. This device can attract 1.8 liter of water per hour from air. This instrument is powered by 12 V battery and 6000mAh Li-ion battery which is rechargeable and it can work on solar device. 



    Largest producing states of World (2015):  Video Link


  1. Aluminum                               China
  2. Asbestos                                  Russia
  3. Bauxite                                    Australia
  4. Byrite                                      Russia
  5. Cadmium                                China
  6. Cement                                    China
  7. Cobalt                                     Democratic republic of Congo
  8. Coal                                         China
  9. Copper                                    Chile
  10. Diamond                                 Russia
  11. Gold                                        China
  12. Graphite                                  China
  13. Gypsum                                  China
  14. Iron- Ore                                 China
  15. Lead                                        China
  16. Zinc                                         China
  17. Magnesite                                China
  18. Mica                                        China
  19. Nickel                                      Indonesia
  20. Petroleum                                Saudi Arabia
  21. Natural Gas                              U.S.A
  22. Silver                                       Mexico
  23. Tungsten                                 China

* This data may have changed with time. This data was recorded in 2015.




As per the present status of knowledge and thought process of mankind is concerned, there is a philosophical barrier about the infinity of the Universe, both in space and time.

To understand these theories, a remarkable astronomical phenomenon, called Red Shift of Doppler Effect must be known.

Doppler Effect and Red Shift: According to Doppler Effect, the frequency of wave appears to be higher when source approaches the observer and frequency lowers when the source recedes from the observer. In the spectrum of visible light, red has the lowest frequency and longest wave length while violet has the highest frequency and shortest wavelength. It has been observed that light coming from the galaxies shifts to the red end of the spectrum. This is known as Red Shift. Assuming it to be true all galaxies must be receding away from us in all directions. This proportionate increase in red shift of the galaxies with increasing distance shows that matter in the Universe is in a state of rapid expansion. This idea of rapid expansion is central to all the modern of the origin of the Universe.




A galaxy is a huge congregation of millions of stars held together by its own gravitational field. On structural analysis, three basic types of galaxies have been indentified:

  1. Spiral Galaxies: Greater concentration of stars in the centre, old ones near the centre and younger in the arms. Our galaxy, the Milky way and Andromeda are examples of spiral galaxies.
  2. Elliptical Galaxies: The most numerous (about 2/3 of all galaxies) consist mostly of very stars.
  3. Irregular Galaxies: Comprise about 1/10 of all galaxies, mostly young starts.
  • The two nearest galaxies to our Milky way are the Large Magellanic cloud and the Small Magellanic cloud. Our galaxy, the Milky way and the Andromeda galaxy are the two largest galaxies in a cluster of some 23 galaxies, Known as the Local Group.


       These are distant stellar systems of luminous bodies, made up of gas and dust particles. ORION Nebulae is situated in Milky Way also crab nebulae.


     There are bodies of frozen dust and gases which have their homes in cold outer fringe of the solar system. Their head is formed by evaporation of solid ice particle when the comet approaches the sun. They have eccentric path or orbit but a definite periodicity like Halley ’s Comet is seen every 76 years. Its tail is away from the sun.


These are small solid matter which, when coming into the atmosphere of the earth, burn out due to friction. While burning, they emit light and hence called Shooting Star.

List of meteors are given in this link


A star is an astronomical object containing gas and plasma bind by its gravitational force capable of producing its own light. Stars account for 98% of the matter in the galaxy. Star forming matter is rich in hydrogen and helium.

Life of a star

A star has a definite evolutionary cycle and they observe a sequential change in their size, mass and gravity with time.

  1. A Proto Star: The formation of star begins with compression of gases and dust. Compression generates heat which in turn causes hydrogen (H2) to be converted into helium in a nuclear fusion.

Nuclear Fusion Explained: Watch this video

  1. Red Giant: As the star starts aging due to fusion reaction depleting hydrogen present on the star, helium core becomes heavy resulting in swelling. The star starts to expand and become redder for example  well-known Red Giant star Mira, or Omicron Ceti So, according to its size the object is named Red Giant.
  2. Novae and Super Novae:  A giant star phase may end in novae or supernovae stage. These are stars whose brightness increases suddenly by 10 to 20 times magnitude or more due to partial or outright explosion in a star. In a supernovae the brightness increases more than 20 times.
  3. Black Holes:  A black hole is a region in space which has a concentration of 1016 grams/cm3 causes super density giving it high gravitational effect under which not even an electromagnetic ray can escape.




What Congress should do?


Congress lost the 2014 election due to Modi Wave which had the strength to convince people that development and Modi go hand in hand. A man capable of getting elected as Chief Minister, thrice in a row and Prime Minister in his maiden attempt despite negative image of being a government alleged for inaction during Godhra riots 2002. People voted for development, robust growth and for a man gaining position from mediocre background. They believed that India is getting gripped by corruption, women safety and incompetency to handle foreign and internal security issues such as Pakistan, Naxalism, terrorism etc. People voted for security, peace and development. After 4 years of government was not able to achieve as expected. Loss of soldiers on LoC in combat with terrorists, unrest in Kashmir, unclear effects of demonetization, unclear statistics and most of all tagging and branding region on incidents have been main issues on which government has failed.

                                      Now the strategy for 2019 elections for congress should be strong enough to keep BJP out from getting majority. Its looks like public opinion are still favoring a certain party for 2019 elections. Now what Congress needs?

  1. A good leadership is the need of the hour for Congress but they have no choice due to historical reasons and over dependent on leadership habits. Rahul Gandhi still needs to learn “How to Answer” without any script or reply in more diplomatic manner. One man can make difference was proved in 2014 and congress needs a man as capable as Modi to make people believe in their strategy.
  2. More focus on future prospects need to be made rather than playing critics card. Congress needs to revisit its strategy in giving more positive prospects of future especially in case of corruption, economic growth and women empowerment. A card just like 2008 loan waiver is needed for making position of congress strong.
  3. Speaking carefully is the need of the hour. Reckless speeches and comments by top leaders make things worse for any party. Sometimes this is what party needs for publicity but it has negative impact which backfire just like Gujrat elections in 2017. Congress has some sophisticated speakers but sometimes they try to hit on personal terms or religious bias which in return harms image of congress.
  4. Muslim support is very necessary for congress to win any election. The sentiments of Muslims need to be understood but in totality. In past years Muslim man and Muslim women are seen diverging because of separate interests. On one have minority needs to be taken care but women empowerment is also an important issue in India.  Congress should showcase sensitivity towards women issues especially security issue.
  5. A grand scheme for poor, farmers and youth who become the base of election. MSP, reservation and waiver are some old strategies which work when political party is in power. If you have to shake the roots, you need something heavy. Kashmir alone cannot win you election. Persona of PM Narendra Modi alone negates many allegations. An untouched issue family planning can give advantage and heal image of congress. Population for development is need of the hour. Giving skill means nothing giving job is all that matters.




       Lucknow: An advertising and Printing Hub


Advertising has now become a 600 billion dollar plus industry in around the world and it is increasing rapidly in the field of social media. Facebook, twitter and google are the main gainers with digital advertising. According to a survey a person now averagely spends 97 minutes on mobile which is even more than television 83 minutes while print media gets only 33 minutes of time. With increasing video and digital advertising person tends to get all the news, information and knowledge through mobile. So in future Google , facebook, twitter, Instagram will get more and more advertising compared to print media. But another fact also remains that many business owners still trust print advertising for better impact in a single go. Lucknow is the capital of most populous state of India with many newspaper readers. Here print media is still one of the most important sources of advertising. Here people still believe in reading and trust offline media.

                                      Here you get variety of print media such as flyers, poster, pamphlet, flex and newspaper printing is very common in Lucknow. The demand for flex has risen vastly in last decade. The rates of flex printing went down from Rs 24 per square feet in 2010 to Rs 7 per square feet in 2017. We now see digital holdings for video display ads. Talking to Mr. Anwar from Sai Printers, Aliganj, we come to know about customized large format poster printing. A new trend is growing among youngsters for gifting large printed photos with sizes varying for 19 inch length (A3 print) to 43 inches in length (A0 print). The most common size is 13 x 19 inches and 24 x 36 inch prints which are durable on thick paper and canvas. Personalized newspaper for loved once is also a new idea available in Lucknow. Mr. Anwar provided us with great deal of personalized products such as t- shirts, pillows, caps, mugs and newspaper for corporate and individual needs. So go on and be a star!!!




                                    Arushi Murder Mystery


Allahabad high court gave its verdict on 12th October, 2017 by releasing Rajesh and Nupur Talwar in the murder case their daughter Aarushi and servant Hemraj in 2008. The decision was made by high court in the wake of no evidence being provided by CBI showing direct involvement in the murder of both. This decision has posed a big question on the functioning of investigation agency and UP Police who were incapable of finding evidences despite all their efforts. The CBI had given 5 major reasons for Talwar couple to be culprit:

1.     No forces entry in the house

2.     Nothing was heard by Talwar couple who were in next bedroom(Verified by CBI to be true by a sound test)

3.     Nupur Talwar was crying when maid arrived.

4.     The cut given to Aarushi were from surgical blade and golf stick which were fitted with Rajesh Talwar.

5.     The door of terrace was never locked as per the maid but it was locked on the day aarushi was murdered and police could find out hemraj’s body only 2 days later.


This case shows utter carelessness on the part of police and questions their role in destroying evidence. CBI came into play only after media pressure that was also unable to find any direct link of the murder with any one person. The case is now a mystery and will seem to remain because of its duration.




Agriculture is one the most ancient and primary economic activity witnessed on earth. It provides us food for our life and energy for work. In the past, farmers were able to produce sufficiently using traditional methods. Observing a sharp rise in the world population, agriculturists are now faced with most feared problem of food shortage in future. Since land is a limited recourse we have to turn our focus towards increasing agricultural productivity naturally to meet the demand of food. India, with highest arable land in the world holds most potential for agricultural growth. But in past few years Indian agriculture has experienced decline in productivity due to excessive use of chemical fertilizers which has become a major concern for Indian farmers. 
Seaweed is now becoming new and natural source of increasing plant’s metabolic functions and crop productivity. IFFCO, a cooperative of Indian farmers which has always been committed to agricultural growth and productivity has come up with a new product to address this problem of low agricultural productivity. Under “Make in India” initiative, IFFCO with the help of CSIR Technological Development Board (TDB) has come up with a new organic product “SAGARIKA”, a liquid seaweed extract. This extract is a plant-bio activator manufactured through technology developed in India with the help of TDB from red and brown weed. Sagarika is an indigenously produced extract derived from the seaweeds found along the southern coasts of India. 
Seaweed Kappaphycus are grown along the coast of Tamil Nadu throughout the year. It is harvested manually in 45 days without any ecological damage. Seaweeds extract activates hormones like auxins, cytokinin which is present in the plant. Auxins are most important hormones present in the shoot tips and young leaves of plants which signaling lateral root growth. Cytokinin is produced in the root tips which lead to improved bud development, flower development and fruits. Seaweed contains Auxins and Cytokinin in a ratio of 350:1 due to which the roots develop in a better way. Eventually, more roots release high Cytokinin leading to better plant and fruit growth. Auxin present in sagarika also stimulates the production of ethylene which is helpful in fruit ripening and color. Ethylene also promotes ABA (Abscisic Acid), a growth stimulator and also gives fruits and enhanced color. 
Along with developing a strong root system sagarika also improves seed germination, increase crops ability to withstand temperature and drought, increases photosynthesis, acts as soil conditioner, increases microbial activity and increases profitability organically.
The results after applying Sagarika are very beneficial. An 11% rise has been observed in production of grapes, 15 % increase of head weight on broccoli, 15% on cereals, 26% in legume seeds, 17% in melon, 17% increase in potatoes in dry land yield, 25% in tomatoes and many more crops. 
Seaweed extraction helps farmers to increase their crop productivity natural on one hand, and increase income of seaweed cultivators due to its commercialization. Women in fishing community have also been empowered as they contribute in their family income. Seaweed production has helped increase income of coastal seaweed farmers and is developing into a form of agriculture.
 An increase in agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner is need of hour and use of organic products ensures its achievement.


If you have the first trait of reading in your daily life we can move on to our second task, selection of correct optional for preparation. UPSC gives you a wide range of optionals to choose among but the most favoured subjects remain to be in humanities. As per last year's records Public Administration has been the most selected optional in civil services. Other popular subjects are Geography, History, Sociology and Philosophy. It is hard to believe that some of selected candidates studied Pali language to clear this exam.
The most important factors in selecting optional become friends, last year's score card and popular subjects in demand but unfortunately these reasons for selecting optionals are much behind the real factor for selection of your optional. It's you interest which should solely drive you towards selecting your optional. Clear understanding of the subject leads to your final selection. Friends, family, seniors, coaching institutions or anyone will not take credit for your losses or failure so don't think of blaming them for making you chose something you don't like.  Here is what you do. Borrow books of any 3 subjects you find interesting, study them for sometime and try to answer questions asked from that subject in the examination. If you enjoy writing an answer about the subject you can put the subject into your wish list. Next , check the syllabus of that subject and attempt to guess the content to be written in the topic. If you are able to understand maximum that subject, you may chose it to your optional if not , try another subject. Once selected do not let anybody change your opinion except yourself. You can choose to change your optional only for the right reasons, not by elses suggestions. If you are about to become decision maker for thousands of people, you have to first make.your decisions correct. In our next session we are gonna talk about Geography as an optional.
Click Here for Lesson one: Curiosity